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Strachey's A Dictionarie of the Indian Language

Smith's Vocabulary of Indian words

Weroances and Their Tribes

English Observers

William Strachey' s Description of Critters in the Chesapeake Bay

Henry Spelman, Relation of Virginia, 1609


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With the decreasing English population, why didn't Powhatan win?

Powhatan almost succeeded in starving the English out of Virginia. By May 1610, only 100 out of 220 English settlers had survived the harsh winter; 60 of those colonists were at Jamestown. On May 21, 1610, two English ships under Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Sommers arrived in Virginia with much-needed provisions and new colonists. After arriving and seeing that their directives to Christianize the Powhatan population and absorb them into the colony were not going to be achieved peacefully, Gates decided to evacuate the colony. Once they were on their way out to sea, they met the remainder of Lord de la Warr's missing fleet, and headed back to the colony.

Powhatan had won for a very short time. Only a day after it had been abandoned, Jamestown was occupied again when Lord de la Warr arrived and took control of the situation. When Powhatan continued to attack the fort and ambush stray colonists, de la Warr became aggressive and ordered Gates to punish the Kecoughtans for killing the settlers the year before. After Gates lured the Kecoughtans out of their town and ambushed them, the surviving Kecoughtans fled and the land was claimed by the English. On July 15, Lord de la Warr sent a message to Powhatan giving him a choice of peace or war. The choice of peace would require the return of any stolen goods and captives. Powhatan sent back a message to warn the English to either stay in the fort at all times or to leave Virginia. Powhatan also demanded that if de la Warr wished to talk to him again, he needed to send a coach and three horses. (Powhatan had learned that this was the mode of transportation for great lords in England and felt he deserved the same consideration.)



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