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Ajacan, The Spanish Jesuit Mission

Roanoke Colony

Jamestown Colony

St. Mary's City

The French

Exploration of the Chesapeake Bay

Gabriel Archer

John Smith, A Map of Virginia, 1612

The accidents that happened in the Discoverie of the bay

What happened the second voyage to discover the Bay

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(from Chapter 6, 'A Map of Virginia')

The 20. of Iuly Captaine Smith set forward to finish the discovery with 12. men their names were

 Nathaniell Powell.
 Thomas Momford.
 Richard Fetherstone.
 Michaell Sicklemore.
 Iames Bourne.
 Anas Todkill.
 Edward Pysing.
 Richard Keale.
 Anthony Bagnall.
 Iames Watkins.
 William Ward.
 Ionas Profit.

The winde beeing contrary caused our stay 2. or 3. / daies at kecoughtan the werowans feasting vs with much mirth. . . The first night we ancored at Stingeray Ile, the nexte crossed Patawomecks riuer, and hasted for the riuer Bolus, wee went not much farther before wee might perceiue the Bay to devide in 2. heads, and arriving there we founde it devided in 4, all which we searched so far as we could saile them; 2 . of them wee found vninhabited, but in crossing the bay to the other, wee incountered 7 . or 8 . Canowes-full of Massawomecks, we seeing them prepare to assault vs, left our oares & made way with our saile to incounter them, yet were we but fiue (with our captaine) could stand; or within 2 . daies after wee left Kecoughtan, the rest (being all of the last supply) were sicke almost to death, (untill they were seasoned to the country) hauing shut them vnder our tarpawling, we put their hats vpon stickes by the barge side to make vs seeme many, and so we thinke the Indians supposed those hats to be men, for they fled withall possile speed to the shoare, and there stayed, staring at the sailing of our barge, till we anchored right against them. Long it was ere we could drawe them to come vnto vs, at last they sent 2 of their company vnarmed in a Canowe, the rest all followed to second them if need required; These 2 . being but each presented with a bell, brought aborde all their fellowes, presenting the captain with venison, beares flesh, fish, bowes, arrows, / clubs, targets, and beare-skins; wee vnderstood them nothing at all but by signes, whereby they sgnified vnto vs they had been at warres with the Tockwoghs the which they confirmed by shewing their green wounds; but the night parting vs, we imagined they appointed the next morning to meete, but after that we never saw them.

Entering the River of Tockwogh the Saluages all armed in a fleete of Boates round invironed vs; it chanced one of them could speake the language of Powhatan who perswaded the rest to a friendly parly: but when they see vs furnished with the Massawomeckes weapons, and we faining the inuention of Kecoughtan to haue taken them perforce; they conduvcted vs to their pallizadoed towne, mantelled with the barkes of trees, with Scaffolds like mounts, brested about with Barks very formally, their men, women, and children, with dances, songs, fruits, fish, furres, & what they had kindly entertained vs, spreading mats for vs to sit on, stretching their best abilities to expresse their loues.

Many hatchets, kniues, & peeces of yron, & brasse, we see, which they reported to haue from the Sasquesahanockes a mighty people, and mortall enimies with the Massawomeckes; The Sasquesahanockes, inhabit vpon the chiefe spring of these 4 . two daies iourney higher then our Barge could passe for rocks. Yet we prevailed with the interpreter to take with him an other interpreter to perswade the Sasquesahanocks to come to visit vs, for their language are different: 3 . or 4 . daies we expected their returne then 60 . of these giantlike-people came downe with presents of venison, Tobacco / pipes, Baskets, Targets, Bowes and Arrows, 5 of their Werowances came boldly abord vs, to crosse the bay for Tockwogh, leaving their men and Canowes, the winde being so violent that they durst not passe.

[The Sasquesahanocks offer to make John Smith their governor] But wee left them at Tockwogh, they much sorrowing for our departure, yet wee promised the next yeare againe to visit them; many deescriptions and discourses they made vs of Atquanahucke, Massawomecke, and other people, signifying they inhabit the river of Cannida, and from the French to haue their hatchets, and such like tooles by trade, / these knowe no more of the territories of Powhatan then his name, and he as little of them.

Thus hauing sought all the inlets and rivers worth noting, we returned to discover the river of Pawtuxunt, these people we found very tractable, and more civill then any, wee promised them, as also the Patawomecks, the next yeare to revenge them of the Massawomecks. Our purposes were crossed in the discoverie of the river of Toppahanock, for wee had much wrangling with that peevish nation; but at last they became as tractable as the rest. It is an excellent, pleasant, well inhabited, fertill, and a goodly navigable river, toward the head thereof; it pleased God to take one of our sicke (called M. Fetherstone) where in Fetherstons bay we buried him in the night with a volly of shot; the rest (notwithstanding their ill diet, and bad lodging, crowded in so small a barge in so many dangers, never resting, but alwaies tossed to and againe) al well recovered their healthes; then we discovered the river of Payankatank, and set sail for Iames Towne; but in crossing the bay in a faire calme. such a sudden gust surprised vs in the night with thunder and raine, as wee were halfe imployed in freeing out water, never thinking to escape drowning yet running before the winde, at last we made land by the flashes of fire from heaven, by which light only we kept from the splitting shore, vntil it pleased God in that black darknes to preserue vs by that light to find Point comfort, and arived safe at Iames Towne, the 7 of September 1608.

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