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Ajacan, The Spanish Jesuit Mission

Roanoke Colony

Jamestown Colony

St. Mary's City

The French

Exploration of the Chesapeake Bay

Gabriel Archer

John Smith, A Map of Virginia, 1612

The accidents that happened in the Discoverie of the bay

What happened the second voyage to discover the Bay

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Gabriel Archer

Gabriel Archer, A relation of the discovery of our river from James Fort into the main, made by Captain Christofer Newport, and sincerely written and observed by a gentleman of the colony.

Thursday, the XXITH of May, Captain Newport, having fitted our shallop with provision and all necessaries belonging to a discovery, took 5 gentlemen, 4 marines and 14 sailors, with whom he proceeded with a perfect resolution not to return but either to find the head of this river, the lake mentioned by others heretofore, the sea again, the mountains Apalatsi, or some issue.

The names of the discoverers are these:
Captain Christofer Newport
George Percye, esquire
Captain Gabriell Archer
Captain John Smyth
Master John Brookes
Master Thomas Wotton
Francys Nellson
John Collson
Robert Tyndall
Mathew Fytchs

1. Jonas Poole
2. Robert Marham
3. John Crookdeck
4. Olyver Browne
5. Benjamyn White
6. Rychard Genoway
7. Thomas Turnbrydg

8. Thomas Godword
9. Robert Jackson
10. Charles Clarke
11. Stephen
12. Thomas Skynner
13. Jeremy Deale
14. Danyell

Thus from James Fort we took our leave about noon, and by night we were up the river 18 mile at a low meadow point, which I call "Wymauk." Here came the people and entertained us with dances and much rejoicing.

The King of Paspeiouh and this king is at odds, as the Paspeians told me, and demonstrated by their hurts.

May 22. Friday, omitting mo time we passed up some 16 mile further, where we found an islet on which were many turkeys and great store of young birds like blackbirds, whereof we took divers which we brake our fast withal.

Now spying 8 savages in a canoa, we hailed them by our workd of kindness wingapoh, and they came to us. In conference by signs with them, one seemed to understand our intention and off'red with his foot to descibe the river to us. So I gave him a pen and paper, showing first the

use, and he laid out the whole river from the Chesseian Bay to the end of it, so far as passage was for boats.

This day we went about 38 mile and came to an anchor at a place I call "Poor Cottage," where we went ashore and were used kindly by the people. We sod our kettle by the waterside within night, and rested aboard.

May 23. Saturday, we passed a few short reaches, and 5 mile off Poor Cottage we went ashore. We found here a wiroans, for so they call their kings, who sat upon a mat of reeds with his people about him. He caused on to be laid for Captain Newport... Certifying him of our intentions up the river, he was willing to send guides with us. This we found to be a king subject to Pawatah, the chief of all the kingdoms; his name is Arahatec, the country Arahatecoh.

But now rowing some 3 mile in shoal water, we came to an overfall impassable for boats any further. Here the water falls down through great main rocks... Our main river ebbs and flows 4 foot even to the skirt of this downfall. Ships of 200 or 300 ton may come to within 5 mile hereof, above 6 foot water.

May 24. Sunday, Now sitting upon the bank by the overfall, beholding the same, he [Pawatah] began to tell us of the tedious travel we should have if we proceeded any further, that it was a day and a half journey to Monanacah; and if we went to Quirank wed should get no vituals and be tired; and sought by all means to dissuade our captain form going any further. Also he told us that the Monanacah was his enemy, and that he came down at the fall of the leaf and invaded his country.

May 25. Monday, Some of his people led us to their houses, showed us the frowing of their corn and the manner of setting it, gave us tovacco, walnuts... One showed us the herb called in their tongue wisacan, which they say heals poisoned wounds. One gave me a root wherewith they poison their arrows.

At dinner our captain gave the king a glass and some aqua vitae therein, showing him the benefit of the water, for which he thank'd him kindly. And taking our leave of him, he promised to meet us at a point not far off, where he hath another house--which he performed withal, sending men into the woods to kill a deer for us if they could. This place I call "Mulberry Shade."

He was desirous to have a musket shot off, showing first the manner of their won skirmishes, which we perceive is violent, cruel, and full of celerity. They use a tree to defend them in fight, and having shot an enemy that he fall, they maul him with a short wooden sword. Our captain caused a gentleman discharge his piece soldier-like before him, at which noise he started, stop'd his ears, and express'd much fear, so likewise all about him. Some of his people being in our boat leapt overboard at the wonder hereof. But our course of kindness after, and letting him to wit that we never use this thunder but against our enemies, yea, and that we would assist him with these to terrify and kill his adversaries, he rejoiced the more.

May 26. Tuesday, We saw the queen of this country coming in selfsame fashion of state as Pawatah or Arahatec, yea, rather with more majesty. She is a fat, lusty, manly woman; she had

much copper about her neck, a crownet of copper upon her head; she had long black hair, which hanged loose down her back to her middle, which only part wass covered with a deer's skin, and else all naked.

The copper he had, as also many of his people, was very flexible. They wear it in their ears, about their necks in ling links, and in broad plates on their heads.



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